3D integration for image

3D integration, which consists in interconnecting electronic chips in 3 dimensions, is a promising solution to address the growing need for functionality, density and performance in future integrated circuits. However, to allow the rapid emergence of this technology in industry, an overall approach is needed, taking account of technological development, new circuits architecture, development of new design tools, testing and reliability technics.
From 2012 to 2020, the academic and industrial teams working under the Nanoelec/3D Integration program focused on developing a comprehensive
platform compatible with the full design cycle of new products. They dealt with technology, but also design, electronic design automation tools (EDA),
testing and reliability.
As of 2021, this activity is giving way to two new programs focusing on  image applications: one devoted to display technologies (Displed) and the other to sensing (Smart Imager).