PAC-G: Applications & Techniques


PAC-G offers characterisation services spanning all pre-market (R&D) and manufacturing steps in the micro- and nano-electronics industry. This includes raw materials, processed materials, wafers, bare dies, stacks and finished components. Many of our characterisation techniques support in-situ studies for investigating manufacturing methods, product performance and failure. We can particularly add value when it’s necessary to understand certain phenomena.

Raw Materials

(e.g. powders, CdTe, quartz etc…)

Processed Materials

(e.g. single crystals, ingots)


(e.g. wafer starts, substrates and engineered wafers from a few mm thick and to up to 300mm)

Engraved Wafers

(e.g. patterned wafers, bonded wafers, silicon-on-insulator, epitaxial and polycrystalline nanolayers)


(e.g. PCBs, full systems and packaged devices, decapsulated devices)


The four members of PAC-G offer a combined portfolio of more than 20 individual characterisation techniques that are available for use by industry. These fall into three categories: physical/chemical characterisation, imaging and irradiation.

Physical and chemical characterisation techniques can be applied to elemental analysis, thin film characterisation, crystal quality assessment, interface characterisation, stress/strain measurements and structural characterisation. For 2D and 3D imaging, PAC-G provides access to both X-ray and neutron imaging services, and at resolutions that are unavailable elsewhere in the world. This can be used for viewing working components, failure analysis and product qualification.

A key player in the high-reliability market, PAC-G provides irradiation services for the space and aeronautics industries, as well as for medical, automotive and mass storage applications. Irradiation services include neutrons (from 14 MeV to thermal neutrons), heavy / light ions and pulsed synchrotron focused x-ray beams. This makes them ideal for assessing the SEE sensitivity of chips and other electronic components, as well as for fault injection. Please click on the headings below to see the individual techniques that are available within each category.

Physical & Chemical Characterisation

Imaging Techniques

Irradiation for SEE Testing

The illustration below shows how the different characterisation techniques offered by PAC-G apply to different length scales and can provide different types of information.

Application Notes

The following are technical notes highlighting key application areas that are supported by PAC-G. Each set of notes includes detailed information about an individual characterisation technique. Download links are provided for each file

Contact PAC-G

71 Avenue des Martyrs,
38000 Grenoble,

+33 (0)4 76 88 25 06